There were three exclosure treatments: 1) no consumers, 2) small-mammal consumers; 3) all consumers. The first and third treatment were combined for all analyses. Distance from each site to nearby patches of Brassica nigra was measured. Seed recruitment was quantified by counting the number of seedlings. Herbivory was quantified by measuring the height of seedlings. Also quantified was the number of adult plants and the length of the longest reproductive tiller. Rodents were trapped within each exclosure.